Ibn Al Haitham

Ibn AL Haitham also known in the Arab world as Alhazen, he was born in 965 in Basra and died in 1040 in Cairo. Ibn Al Haitham was a Muslim mathematician, philosopher, scientists, astronomer and polymath. Ibn Al Haitham made important contributions to the principles of astronomy, optics, scientific method and visual perception. Ibn Al Haitham was the first medical scholar to teach that light “does not originates from the eye but on opposite enters the eye”, which he corrected the Greeks opinion about the nature of the eye. According to Ibn Al Haitham the retina is in the center of the vision and it receives impressions that it transfers to the brain by the optical nerve, for the brain to create visual images for the symmetrical relationship between the retinas. Rosanna Gorini commented on the introduction of the scientific method that Ibn Al Haitham “According to the majority of the historians al-Haitham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable”. Roshdi Rashed also wrote about Ibn Al Haitham “His work on optics, which includes a theory of vision and a theory of light, is considered by many to be his most important contribution, setting the scene for developments well into the seventeenth century. His contributions to geometry and number theory go well beyond the archimedean tradition. And by promoting the use of experiments in scientific research, al-Haytham played an important part in setting the scene for modern...

Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (February 25, 1304 – 1377, Morocco)   Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta, Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanij Ibn Battuta, was born on the 25th of February, 1304. At an early age, he shortened his name to “Ibn Battuta”. Ibn Battuta set out during a time when not many would have the courage to venture off and explore. He completed his Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and spent most of his lifetime travelling.   Ibn Battuta spent 30 years on the road, he travelled around North Africa, Egypt and the Swahili coast, all the way to Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula and passed through Palestine and Greater Syria en route; and navigated through Anatolia and Persia and to Afghanistan; cut across the Himalayas to India, up to Sri Lanka and the Maldives, finally reaching the eastern Chinese coast and turning around all the way back to Morocco. Ibn Battuta was also a judge, and was talented in the geographic field, botany, Islamic theology, and had a social scientist’s ability of observation; however his legacy is his writing.   Ibn Battuta founded the art of travel writing. Throughout his journey, Ibn Battuta wrote notes, observations and what he had learned along the way. Upon the request of the sultan of Morocco, a young writer spent months rewriting Ibn Battuta’s story and compiling “الرحلة” or “The Travels”. Ibn Battuta traveled over 117, 500 km, visiting almost 44 countries, of them was: Egypt, Syria, Bahrain, Tunis, Valencia, Bulgaria, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Constantinople.   Nowadays, what is left of Ibn Battuta’s legacy is his writing and the notes he took while travelling. Ibn Battuta goes down in history as one of the most eminent Arab scientists and writers, and also has a distinguished place...

Abbas Ibn Firnas Writing...

    Abbas Ibn Firnas   Abbas Ibn Firnas was born on (810 – 887 A.D.), he was a Muslim inventor, engineer aviator, physician, and an Arabic poet. Throughout his life he invented many inventions and he had amazing ideas towards science and the idea of flying. He was more into aviation than anyone else because he was the first man to attempt to fly. He had also invented the water clock in which people still use today, it is known for its accuracy than any other clocks. Many scientists that came after Ibn Firnas were inspired by him. For example the flying machine that he created was later on inspired by the Wright brothers, without Ibn Finas’s ideas they would have never thought of the fact of creating an air plane. This air plane that they had created succeeded. He built his own glider and flew off from a mountain, the flight was successful and many people had recognized him as the inventor of aviation. He also devised the means of manufacturing glass from sand, he also developed the rings that we see on maps of the solar system and showed us how the planets and stars move around. It was said that Leonardo da Vinci had drew plans of his own flying machine; he had took ideas from Ibn Firnas and used it to invent his own. His inventions were basically a bird costume and one of his famous flights was in Spain, when he flew for a few moments and unfortunately his attempt failed and he broke his neck. In Ibn Firnas’s house he had built a room in which viewers had watched stars, clouds, thunder and lighting, there were produced by tools located in his laboratory in his house. Finally...

Ibn-Al-Nafis

Ibn Al-Nafis             His name is Ala-al-din abu AL-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazem al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi. He was known as Ibn al-Nafis. He was an Arab physician, and he is well known for the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Ibn al-Nafis was born in Damascus in the year 1213, during the 13th century, 607 A.H. Ibn al- Nafis’s main field was medicine, he was educated at the Medical college-cum-Hospital which was founded by Nur al-Din Zangi. Besides studying medicine he showed interest in each of jurisprudence which is the theory or the philosophy of law; in addition to, literature and theology. Ibn al Nafis then moved to Egypt and was appointed as ra’is al-atibba or chief of physicians at the Nasri Hospital in Cairo.             Ibn al-nafis was  able to educate and train a large number of specialists in different fields, including Ibn al Quff al-Masihi the most famous surgeon. He also taught at the Mansuriya School in Cairo. he has written a lot of books, yet he has those which are more volumus and popular than others as they relate more to the study of the people. One of these voluminous books is Al-Shamil fi al Tibb, which was initially planned to be 300 volume, yet was compromised and uncompleted due to his death on 1288, 687 A.H.Yet the manuscripts of this encyclopedia is available and present in Damascus. He also had many writing, one that was a great contribution to ophthalmology. Another one of his books that was later translated in the west is “Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah” which is known to be “Theologus Autodidactus”. besides his writings he had written a few commentaries. Finally one of his most notable works is “commentary on anatomy in Avenicci Canon”. And...

Al-Zahrawi Writing

Abu Al-Qasim Kalaf Ibn Al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi Al-Zahrawi is a famous Muslim scholar. He was born in 936 and died in 1013. He lived in al andalas which was Spain in the middle Ages when the Muslim was in it. In the west he used to known as Abulcasis, because he was a physician, surgeon, and scientist. He’s the fatherof modern surgery and Islam’s greatest medieval surgeon. Al Zahrawi was a very talented and educated scholar he wrote a book that talked about scientism comprehensive in an encyclopedia called “the drainage for who cannot form” in the book he wrote about 30 different reports. for example in report 1 he talked about the general information’s in medicine and information in writing medicines and the ways of slicing. In report 2 he talked about diseases and their symptoms, also their cure. In report 26 he wrote about what food should healthy and sick people eat. There are a lot of famous sergeants like Roger Salerno that were influenced by El Zahrawi. They discovered new this that they later find out el Zahrawi did it before them 300 years ago. Also guy de chauliac was one of the first French surgeons that were influenced by el Zahrawi. Guy de chauliac wrote a very famous book called “la pratique en chirurgie’ this book had great influence on future surgeons, it also advised doctors what to do in surgery. All that influence and great work is because of El Zahrawi he was the one who worked hard and discovered many new things that other scholars used in their research. Also one of his very famous books was the “kitab al tasrif” known also as the method of medicine. This book is an Arabic encyclopedia on medicine and surgery. He...