Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Writing)...

His name Razi in Persian means “from the city of Rey”, an ancient town called Ragha in old Persian       The most free-thinking of the major philosophers of Islam, al-Razi was born in Rey, where he was well trained in the Greek sciences. He was well versed in musical theory and performance before becoming a physician. Becoming a Physician, al-Razi  directed two major hospitals, one in Baghdad, the capital of the Islamic empire at that time, and another in his native city of Rayy in northern Iran. His writings on medicine were universally admired.  Razi wrote a pioneering book about smallpox providing clinical characterization of the diseases.”Smallpox appears when blood ‘boils’ and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled. Thus juvenile blood (which looks like wet extracts appearing on the skin) is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up essentially as ‘bubbles found in wine’ – (as blisters) – … this disease can also occur at other times – (meaning: not only during childhood) -. The best thing to do during this first stage is to keep away from it, otherwise this disease might turn into an epidemic.” Al-Razi said. Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely “On Surgery” and “A General Book on Therapy”, became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. As a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted. Edward Granville Browne considers him as “probably the greatest and most original of all the physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author....

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Ibn Zuhr

    Abu Marwan Abd-El Malik ibn Zuhr who is known in the west as Avenzoar he was a very important Arab-Muslim Physician and surgeon he worked in Al-Andalus where he was born at Seville which is now considered south western Spain .He belonged to Al-Zuhr family which produced six generations of physicians, therefore he studied medicine with his father at a young age.Ibn-Zuhr really focused on the rational basic of medicine .He wrote a very well-known book called Al-Taysīr fil-Mudāwāt wal-Tadbīr (“Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet”), got later translated into Latin and Hebrew and really affected  the development of surgeries. Ibn-Zuhr also developed surgical and medical knowledge as he listed in his several diseases and their treatments. Ibn-zuhr is believed to have done the first trachenometry on a goat and he also introduced bezoar stones as medical treatments. Al Zuhr’s work includes three books Kitab al-iqtisad fi Islah Al-Anfus WA al-Ajsad, written in his youth. Kitab al-aghdhiya, on foods and regimen of health, written in exile in Morocco.Kitab al-taysir, his opus magnum and written at the request of his colleague Averroes. Ibn Zuhr fled Seville but went to jail in Marrakesh in 1140 he later went back and practiced medicine until he died in 1162.Ibn Zuhr introduced descriptions of different cancers and animal testing as an experimental way to test surgical procedures before doing them on humans. Also, he was the first to describe the diseases called scabies, the itch mite, therefore he was referred to as the first parasitology. He was even the first to practice direct feeding through the gullet in those cases where normal feeding was not possible. The Jewish physician-philosopher Maimonides believed Ibn Zuhr was a great surgeon describing him as “unique in his age and one of...