Ibn Al Haytham Biography- Malak Wahdan...

Abou Ali Al Hassan Ibn Al Hassan Ibn Al Haytham was born on July 1st, 965 CE in Basra, Iraq in the province of the Buyid Empire. He was usually nicknamed Ibn Al Hassan or Al Basri, after his birthplace, the city of Basra. He was also called Ptolemy the Second because of his significant contributions in philosophy, physics, science, math and astronomy. During Al Haytham’s time in Basra, he worked as a civil servant to the government. Civil service usually refers to work done for the public sector under the supervision of the government. Deeply passionate about science and theology, Al Haytham found himself lost in the world of books where he studied everything he was interested in, and which some would say marked the beginning of his successful career. Al Haytham first attempted to distinguish the differences between the Shi’a and Sunni sects, being a devout Muslim and a passionate theologist, but failed to do so. Al Haytham believed that nothing is flawless but God, and believed in Him and His creations blindly, resting his reason on both faith and empirical practice. Afterwards, Al Hakim Ibn Amr Allah, the ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate at the time, called Al Haytham to Egypt, on account of his acclaimed works and fame, to help regulate the constant flooding of the Nile River. At first, he mulled over the idea of building a dam at Aswan. After he realized the irrationality of his ideas and of what he was doing, he pretended to be insane so that he would not anger the Caliphate and make him think he wasted his time. So, Al Haytham was put under house arrest from 1011 to 1021, when the Caliphate died. Then in 1040, Al Haytham died in Cairo,...

Ahmed Zewail Biography -MariamBazid10S...

The day the great Ahmed Zewail was born is during 1946 on the twenty sixth of February. His birth took place in Damanhur, which is an area near Alexandria. Zewail is said to have had an interesting childhood. He moved and was raised in Disuq, Kafr Al Sheikh, which lay on a branch of the Nile. Both his parents raised him, the only boy in the family, along with three other sisters. He had started elementary school in Disuq, and continued to study until he went to college at the University of Alexandria. He studied into science, and he earned his bachelor’s degree in science. Zewail’s family influenced him greatly and had encouraged him to become the overachiever that he was. They had constantly supported him and they really wanted to see him as a successful person. He then continued to study further and later earned his MS degree also at the University of Alexandria. Once he started thinking about going for his Ph.D. degree, he started to connect with many universities in the Unites States. Although, there were many reasons for him not to go to the States, he decided to go earn his Ph.D. degree from one of the universities that had offered him a scholarship. This lucky university was the University of Pennsylvania. After graduating with his Ph.D. degree, he went to work at Caltech in California as a professor of Chemical Physics. He worked in the field of femtochemistry, which is the study of reactions during short periods, or femtoseconds, in chemistry. As far as his personal life is concerned, Zewail is proudly married with four children. Zewail received numerous awards, including the King Faisal award. He was awarded honorary doctorates from many universities such as Lund University, the University of Jordan, and the University of Glasgow. Today, Zewail is considered to be one of the most famous...

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldoun May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH) was a Tunisian Muslim historiographer and historian who is said to be the father of modern historiography, sociology and economics. Ibn Khaldun is the most important figure in the field of History and Sociology in Muslim History. He is one of those shining stars that contributed richly to the understanding of Civilization. He lived a life in search of stability and influence. He came from a family of scholars. He would succeed in the field of Scholarship much more so than in any other field He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomena in English), which was discovered, evaluated and fully appreciated first by 19th century European scholarship, although it has also had considerable influence on 17th-century Ottoman historians like Ḥajjī Khalīfa and Mustafa Naima who relied on his theories to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire. Later in the 19th century, Western scholars recognized him as one of the greatest philosophers to come out of the Muslim world. His family’s high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with the best teachers in Maghreb. He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Qur’an which he memorized by heart, the basis for an understanding of the Qur’an, hadith, sharia and fiqh .He received certification (ijazah) for all these subjects.The mathematician and philosopher, Al-Abili of Tlemcen, introduced him to mathematics, logic and philosophy, where he above all studied the works of Averroes, Avicenna, Razi and Tusi. At the age of 17, Ibn Khaldūn lost both his parents to the Black Death, an intercontinental epidemic of the plague that hit Tunis in 1348–1349. Recognized as the founder of sociological sciences, Ibn Khaldun has been accepted and commented upon by...