Jabir Ibn Hayyan – Background and Childhood...

Introduction: Jaber ibn Hayyan also known Geber, is one of the most prominent Islamic scholars. He was one of the most well-known alchemists, and was labelled as “the father of Chemistry”. Ibn Hayyan was born in 721 (103 H), and died 815 (200H). Being a polymath, he wrote over 300 books on philosophy, 1,300 books on mechanical devices and military machinery, and hundreds of other books on alchemy. It is reported that Jabir was a polymath who wrote 300 books on philosophy, 1,300 books on mechanical devices and military machinery, and hundreds of books on alchemy. He is considered to be the founder of experimental chemistry, and had lots of discoveries in the field of Chemistry. Background: Jaber Ibn Hayyan was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Iran (known as Peria), which was ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate at the time. There has been a difference in opinion between different historical sources as to his background and origin. While some sources claim that he was a Persian from Khorasan (who later went to live in Kufa), others say he might be of Syrian origin, and later lived in Iraq and Persia. However, most historical sources refer to him as Persian. Ibn Hayyan has also been reported to be Hayyan Al-Azdi’s son. Hayyan al-Azdi was a pharmacist from Yemen who later emigrated to Kufa, and also lived during the Umayyad Caliphate. That information, however, has not been clearly confirmed as others, such as historian Henry Corbin, believe he was a part of the Azd tribe. Ibn Hayyan started his rode in alchemy at the court of Harun al-Rashid, where he wrote from him “Kitab al-Zuhra”, or “The Book of Venus”. He was also a supporter of the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and gathered support for...

Ibn Sina’s Childhood...

Today, the only information we have about Ibn Sina’s (see: Avicenna) early childhood comes from his own autobiography, other details of his life come from his disciple Al-Juzajani. Born in 980 near Bukhara, modern day Uzbekistan, Ibn Sina’s father was a governor of the village which they lived in, and grew up witnessing numerous and frequent intellectual meetings in his father’s house.  Ibn Sina had mastered the memorization of the Quraan, the holy Islamic book, by age 10. His memory and keen attention and fueled desire to seek knowledge stunned his professors. At 14 years of age, he was so driven by the philosophy branch metaphysics that he memorized Aristotle’s Metaphysics. His hunger for knowledge compelled him to teach himself the conceptual foundations of medicine and the basics of chemistry by age 16, and began successfully treating the ill near his vicinity, with a remarkably prominent incident where he treated the King of Bukhara of an identified illness, and was honored by being granted access to the Royal Library of Samanids, where he spent years intensely researching various aspects of science. The political turbulence in The Samanid Dynasty triggered severe instability in Bukhara  At only 21 years of age, Ibn Sina was a court physician and a political administrator. His father’s death greatly affected him, for without a mentor, he spent years wandering villages, working as a professor of philosophy and scientist by day, and holding discussions for him, students, and whoever was interested in anything that encompassed philosophy or medicine. Ibn Sina insists that he was mainly self taught through the teaching of Aristotle, Plato, and such. He has published over 450 books on philosophy, the two most prominent being “The Book of Healing”, an encyclopedia that covered nearly everything on philosophy, and...

Al Razi

Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī is an excessive Persian Muslim scientist, who left a legacy in history with his brilliantness. He studied lots of different sciences, and later became physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar. He was born in August 26, 865, in Rayy near Tehran, Iran.  He died in October 15 925.he also lived most of his life in Baghdad, and he was chief physician on both cities. He was apparently into music before he started his studies in science and philosophy. He always studied the translated Greek medical books, so when he grew up he became a much known scientist. Later on, his books were translated to Latin’s, and to kings of other countries, and the people who translated they were non-Muslims, and the people asked for the translations were also non-Muslims. When he decided to open a hospital, he did a very clever action to build the hospital in the most possible purified place.  Which was cutting pieces of meat into quarters, and putting them in different places of the city and the last one that becomes rotten; it becomes the place for his new hospital. He was also known for his kindness, because the poor patients that were in his hospitals, he always took good care of them and they were properly fed. He wrote more than 200 books, and he really felt that it was very important to write the sources. There are two main very popular books that he wrote, Comprehensive Book on Medicine and Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah. The first book talked it had 10 chapters talking about medicine and different diseases. This book was important because a lot of information from the Greek, Indian, and early Arabic writings were lost, and he had these sources of...

abbas ibn fernas

“Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying.” —Philip Hitti, History of the Arabs. Abbas Ibn Firnas, (a.k.a Abbas Abu Al-Qasim Ibn Firnas Ibn Wirdas Al-Takuiri) was a great Muslim inventor from Andalusia. Not only this, he was also an engineer, aviator, physician, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician. He is more popularly for having been the first man to successfully fly for an astonishing thirty minutes. Interestingly enough, the right brothers were only able to fly for five minutes hundreds of years later. In 875 when he was 65 years old, Ibn Firnas built his own “glider”, and threw himself from a mountain. The flight was very successful, and was widely observed by a crowd that he had invited to witness this event. However, the landing was terrible, he even injured his back, and left critics. This was due to the fact that he hadn’t taken proper account of the way birds pull up into a stall, and land on their tails and he didn’t provided a tail, nor means for such a maneuver. Similarly, he was born in Izn-Rand Onda, AL-Andalus (which is todays Ronda, Spain), and he lived in the emirate of Córdoba. He designed a water clock and called it “Al-Maqata”, devised a means of making colorless glass, invented corrective lenses “reading stones”, devised a chain of rings that could be used to simulate motions of the planets and stars, and created a process for cutting rock crystal (that allowed Spain to cease exporting quartz to Egypt to be cut). It is known that he attempted to fly using a set of wings he made himself. Unfortunately the attmmt was not ver successful and thankfully ended only with some minor injuries most serious of...

Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (February 25, 1304 – 1377, Morocco)   Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta, Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanij Ibn Battuta, was born on the 25th of February, 1304. At an early age, he shortened his name to “Ibn Battuta”. Ibn Battuta set out during a time when not many would have the courage to venture off and explore. He completed his Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca and spent most of his lifetime travelling.   Ibn Battuta spent 30 years on the road, he travelled around North Africa, Egypt and the Swahili coast, all the way to Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula and passed through Palestine and Greater Syria en route; and navigated through Anatolia and Persia and to Afghanistan; cut across the Himalayas to India, up to Sri Lanka and the Maldives, finally reaching the eastern Chinese coast and turning around all the way back to Morocco. Ibn Battuta was also a judge, and was talented in the geographic field, botany, Islamic theology, and had a social scientist’s ability of observation; however his legacy is his writing.   Ibn Battuta founded the art of travel writing. Throughout his journey, Ibn Battuta wrote notes, observations and what he had learned along the way. Upon the request of the sultan of Morocco, a young writer spent months rewriting Ibn Battuta’s story and compiling “الرحلة” or “The Travels”. Ibn Battuta traveled over 117, 500 km, visiting almost 44 countries, of them was: Egypt, Syria, Bahrain, Tunis, Valencia, Bulgaria, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Constantinople.   Nowadays, what is left of Ibn Battuta’s legacy is his writing and the notes he took while travelling. Ibn Battuta goes down in history as one of the most eminent Arab scientists and writers, and also has a distinguished place...

Jaber Ibn Hayyan -Hana Bunkheila Apr10

Jaber Ibn Hayyan -Hana Bunkheila...

Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan was an Arab chemist, philosopher, physician, astronomer, and alchemist. He was born in 721 and died in 815. Jabir ibn Hayyan is known to have been the first practical alchemist in the world. In the early 10th century, the identity and exact amount of works of Jabir was in disagreement in Islamic groups. His name was known as “Geber” in the Christian West and in 13th century Europe an anonymous writer. He was then referred to as Pseudo-Geber who produced alchemical and metallurgical work.   He became interested in alchemy because he was influenced by his teacher, Ja’far as-Sadiq. Jabir’s investigations in alchemy allegedly rotated around the ultimate goal of takwin. Takwin is the supposed creation of artificial life. He wrote several recipes for creating creatures like scorpions, snakes, and even humans in a laboratory, which are completely under the control of their creator.   Whether Jabir ibn Hayyan was real or not, his name would become the most famous name in alchemy. He influenced many great alchemists that came after him like al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Tughrai and al-Iraqi, who lived in the 9th–13th centuries. His books strongly influenced the medieval European alchemists and warranted their search for the philosopher’s stone. In the Middle Ages, Jabir’s research on alchemy was translated into Latin and became normal texts for European alchemists.    ...