omar khayyam-writing

Omar el Khayyam       Omar el Khayyam was found as a huge inspiration to most people due to the fact that he developed in several different branches. Khayyam was born in 1048CE in nishapur, Iran He majored in poetry math astronomy science and philosophy He died in 1123 CALENDER Firstly he reformed the Iranian calendar this is the calendar that is followed in Iran and Afghanistan today! This standardized the month lengths thus minimizing the effect of the solar transit. POETRY Nevertheless he also astonished people with his greatly written poetry he wrote about thousand four-line verses. His poetry was written in the English language and it was said that he “shaped the way a generation of Iranians viewed” Example : AWAKE! For Morning in the Bowl of Night Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight: And lo! The Hunter of the East has caught The Sultan’s, Turret in a Noose of Light. Dreaming when Dawn’s Left Hand was in the Sky I heard a Voice within the Tavern cry, “Awake, my little ones, and fill the Cup Before Life’s Liquor, in its Cup be dry.” And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before The Tavern shouted – “Open then the Door! You know how little while we have to stay, And once departed, may return no more.”   ASTRONOMY He built an observatory with other scientists .he was invited by the sultan to do it due to his great accomplishments.   Isn’t it simply inspiring how great he accomplished in all the branches he decided to contribute in studying. He is quite the inspiration to Muslims all through the world his great accomplishments and hard work really did pay him back even after his dead which is shown by...

Hassan Al-Rammah – Writing...

Impact of Al-Ramah’s Inventions on the Modern Day World Hassan Al-Ramah was the first Muslim chemist to develop the creation of modern explosives. He developed explosives such as gunpowder and torpedoes that contain rockets and also rockets that could explode were another one of his inventions. One of the books written by Al-Ramah (Horsemanship and stratagems of war) discusses the fact that the invention of weapons contributes to the development of Islam. This is because weaponry helps with the protection of armies and those who are undergoing battle or war. Also, one of the other works that Al-Ramah produced discusses the process of purifying the components of gunpowder, which is a very vital component to adding value to the gunpowder as its impurity degrades its value. The creation of gunpowder has a great impact on the modern world, as gunpowder has now been developed to be used within bullets found in guns and the development of gun related firearms in general. Guns are mainly relied on by police forces, and they are used for protecting them, making them an important factor for ensuring protection. Although guns can be used in a positive manner, they also have a great negative impact as they can be used to enforce danger on others since it is now easier to get ahold of firearms. Torpedoes that are propelled using rockets created by Al-Ramah have impacted the idea of modern day rockets that are present. The torpedo that was previously made developed its motion through lighting up the rockets. This is reflected upon the rockets well known to us today, as they gain their motion and ability to move upwards through a great force of fire pushing down on the ground. Also, the idea of torpedoes can also be...

The Bana Musa Brothers...

The Bana Musa brothers were were three brothers: Jafar Muhammed ibn Musa, Ahmed ibn Musa and al-Hasan ibn Musa. They are almost indistinguishable but we do know that although they often worked together, they did have their own areas of expertise.   Jafar Muhammad worked mainly on geometry and astronomy while Ahmad worked mainly on mechanics and al-Hasan worked mainly on geometry. It is quite impossible to write separate biographies of the three brothers, who are usually known as the Banu Musa, and we shall not attempt to do so.   The Banu Musa brothers were among the first group of mathematicians to begin to carry forward the mathematical developments begun by the ancient Greeks. It is therefore worth looking at the background to how Arabic mathematics came to fill this role.   Harun al-Rashid became the fifth Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty on 14 September 786, not long after Musa ibn Shakir, the father of the Banu Musa brothers, was born. Harun ruled from his court in the capital city of Baghdad over the Islam empire which stretched from the Mediterranean to India. He brought culture to his court and tried to establish the intellectual disciplines, which at that time were not flourishing in the Arabic world. An example of this change is seen in the life of Musa ibn Shakir, the father of the Banu Musa brothers, who was a robber in his youth but turned to science, becoming highly proficient in astronomy.   It was during al-Rashid’s reign that the first Arabic translation of Eucid’s Elements into Arabic was made by al-Hajjaj. The first steps were being taken to allow Greek mathematics to spread through the Islam Empire. Al-Rashid had two sons; the eldest was al-Amin while the younger was al-Ma’mun. Harun al-Rashid died in 809...

Al-Razi Early Life and Education...

Ibn Zakariyya al-Razi Muhammad Ib Zakariyya al-Razi was born in the city of Rey in 854, located on the Great Silk Road, which for years enabled trade and cultural exchanges between the East and the West. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he was first introduced to medicine. He practiced and learned medicine in the local hospital there. Later, he was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq, who was back then the governor of Rey, and became the hospital’s head. As the years passed, Razi became increasingly familiar with medicine among other skills. He soon became a very respected and popular physician. As a result of this newfound popularity, he was invited to Baghdad once more in order to assume a position as director of the local hospital. Throughout his lifetime, Razi suffered from glaucoma. His eye problems began with cataracts and ended in complete blindness, the exact reasons behind the blindness being a mystery. Despite his blindness, Razi was considered a great physician and a great man; he treated the poor without any form of payment as a form of service to those he referred to as “Man la yahdurub al-tabib”, translated as “Who has no Physician to Attend Him”. He was referred to by Ibn al-Nadim in Fihrist as a sheikh; a title given to an individual considered honourable and capable of teaching those who wanted to learn. Among Razi’s contributions to medicine is identifying the smallpox and separating them from measles, as well as describing their exact symptoms and ways to deal with such an illness. As quoted by the Encyclopaedia Britannica: “The most trustworthy statements as to the early existence of the disease are found in an account by the 9th-century Persian physician Rhazes [Razi], by...

Ibn al Ghazali – Writing...

Ibn al Ghazali was born in 1068 in Tus, Khurasan which was a Persian state known today as Iran.  His father died when al Ghazali was young. His father asked a Sufi friend, to inest the little mooney he left in learning how to read and write. When the money ran out, their friend suggested they go to scholl which offered board . When al Ghazali’s father died, he learned in Tus with Ahmad el Radhakani as his teacher. Next, he headed to Jurjan where he learned lectures from Al-Qasim Al-Isma`ili Al-Jurjani and wrote Al-Ta`liqah from his lectures. Afterwards, he returned to Tus for three years and then left for NIsaphour. He studied under Imam Al-Haramayn Al-Juwaini in the Nizamayyah School until his  professor died. Throughout these eight years, he mastered Islamic sciences except the science of the Hadith which might hsve been the cause of untraditional work in his works. When his professor died, he went to the Camp which was known to be the meeting area for scholars who discussed Islamic sciences. There, he earned the scholar’s respect o they assigned him as a teacher in the Nizamayyah school in Baghdad. Through this position, he gained prestige, respect and wealth that princes couldn’t match. He studied philosophy and later wrote “The Aims of Philosophers” which made him appear as one of them. Moreover, he also wrote “The Incoherence of the Philosophers” as a critique to them. Al Ghazali ended his career as a teacher in Baghdad as a result to the “spiritual crisis.” He debated the reasons for quitting teaching through his book “Deliverance from Error” where he stated that ‘one should abandon all worldly attachments’ and that “any deed that was not for the sake of Allah was an obstacle.” He...

Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (Writing)...

  Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad-Al-Sadiq (A.S) is believed to be the sixth reliable Imam or spiritual leader and successor to the prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He is respected by all the Muslims for his great Islamic scholarship, devout character, and academic contributions. Imam Jafar al Sadiq was born in Madina to Umme Farwah bint Qasim ibn Mohammad ibn Abi Bakar on 20th April, 702HD (17Rabai-al-Awwal, 83 Hegirae). Out of numerous titles of Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad-Al-Sadiq most famous are Al-Sadiq, Al-Fazil and Al-Tahir. Jafar al Sadiq was 34 years old when his father, Muhammad al-Baqir was poisoned and he then inherited the Imamate. Imam Jafar married Fatima, a descendent of Imam Hassan Ibn Ali, who gave birth to two sons, Ismail Ibn Jafar (Imam of Ishmaelite) and Abdullah. After his wife’s death, Al-Sadiq married Hameeda Khatoon. She bore Imam Musa-al-Kazim and she was very famous for her wisdom. As a child, Jafar Al-Sadiq was brought up under guidance of his grandfather Imam Zain-ul-Abdeen. After the death of his grandfather, he was brought up by his father, Muhammad Al-Baqir until 733A.D. Jafar Al-Sadiq substantiated his abilities in Islamic science, including Hadiths, Sunnah and the Quran since childhood. He is very well known for his liberal, rational, and enlightened views on learning and wisdom. Many historians have listed about four thousand scholars of different sciences educated by Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad-Al-Sadiq. Imam Jafar Ibn Muhammad-Al-Sadiq (A.S) was famous and popular in various factions of Islamic society. Umayyad rulers saw this fame and direct contact of Jafar Al-Sadiq with society as a threat to their government. Many of Jafar Al-Sadiq’s relatives were martyred by Umayyad rulers including his father. Shortly after his father’s death, Jafar Al-Sadiq’s uncle, Zaid Ibn Ali had a rebellion against the Umayyad. Many of...