Fatima Al-Fihri Writing...

Fatima el fihri Writing Fatima el fihri was a young princess that founded the first degree-granting university in fez, morocco in 859. Her sister myriam founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the al-qarawiyyin mosque and university. Still operating almost 1,200 years later, people hope the center will remind people that learning is at the core of the Islamic tradition and the story of the al-fihri sisters will inspire young Muslim women around the world today. Fatima Muhammad al firhri died in 880 was nicknamed oum al banine, she was the daughter of a wealthy business man Muhammad al fihri. after the death of Fatima and her sister myriam’s father they inherited his fortune and with that money they constructed the mosque and educational institution known as the qarwiyyin. The university of qarawiyyin in fez morocco is knows to be a major intellectual center in the Mediterranean. It has an excellent reputation that it attracted gerbert of Auvergne to study there. Auvergne then became pope Sylvester II and has been given credit for introducing Arabic numerals and the concept pf zero to the rest of Europe. It is said that fatimas sister myriam is responsible for the construction of al andalus in fez. Fatima al fihri was a woman that pioneered a model of higher learning coupled with the issuance of degrees of various levels. She migrated with her family in the early nith century from qayrawan which Is modern day Tunisia to the city of fez in morocco. After the death of fatimas brother father and husband she and her sister decided to dedicate all their wealth and education to benefit their community. So they ended up building the qarawiyyin mosque and university. The university is considered by many historians as...

Jabir Ibn Hayyan – Background and Childhood...

Introduction: Jaber ibn Hayyan also known Geber, is one of the most prominent Islamic scholars. He was one of the most well-known alchemists, and was labelled as “the father of Chemistry”. Ibn Hayyan was born in 721 (103 H), and died 815 (200H). Being a polymath, he wrote over 300 books on philosophy, 1,300 books on mechanical devices and military machinery, and hundreds of other books on alchemy. It is reported that Jabir was a polymath who wrote 300 books on philosophy, 1,300 books on mechanical devices and military machinery, and hundreds of books on alchemy. He is considered to be the founder of experimental chemistry, and had lots of discoveries in the field of Chemistry. Background: Jaber Ibn Hayyan was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Iran (known as Peria), which was ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate at the time. There has been a difference in opinion between different historical sources as to his background and origin. While some sources claim that he was a Persian from Khorasan (who later went to live in Kufa), others say he might be of Syrian origin, and later lived in Iraq and Persia. However, most historical sources refer to him as Persian. Ibn Hayyan has also been reported to be Hayyan Al-Azdi’s son. Hayyan al-Azdi was a pharmacist from Yemen who later emigrated to Kufa, and also lived during the Umayyad Caliphate. That information, however, has not been clearly confirmed as others, such as historian Henry Corbin, believe he was a part of the Azd tribe. Ibn Hayyan started his rode in alchemy at the court of Harun al-Rashid, where he wrote from him “Kitab al-Zuhra”, or “The Book of Venus”. He was also a supporter of the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and gathered support for...

Thabit Ibn Qurra

  Thabit Ibn Qurra was an Iraqi Muslim mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator. He best known for translating classic Greek works on astronomy, and discovered an equation for determining the amicable numbers. He was a Mandean physician, who was known as Thebit in Latin. He was a representative of the flourishing Arab-Islamic culture of the 9th century. Thabit covered a wide range of topics and fields. Thabit Ibn Qurra is known for being the early reformer of the Ptolemaic system, founder of statics, length of the sidereal year. While some of his work was written in his native Syriac, most were composed in Arabic.   Thabit Ibn Qurra was born in 210-211 A.H/ 826 A.D in the second half of the ninth century during the Abbasid Caliphate. He was born in Harran in higher Mesopotamia, modern day Turkey. Thabit Ibn Qurra was influenced by many scholars. For example, Banu Musa, Archimedes, Apollonius,Nicomachus, Euclid. And he influenced others like Al-Khazini, Al-Isfizari, Na’im ibn Musa.     His knowledge of Arabic and Greek made him popular within a community of scholars, the Banu Moussa. He has been asked to join the group by a family member Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir, who recognized his talents and potential. He then moved to Baghdad. Baghdad was one of the largest cities of the time and was known for its scholars. He started working in Baghdad and occupied himself in sciences. He was interested in mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, medicine and philosophy.   Several of Thābit ibn Qurrah’s works were translated into Latin and Hebrew and proved to be influential in the Latin West.  Only On the Sector-Figure which deals with Menelaus’ theorem and  On the Composition of Ratios were preserved in their original form. Thabit died in Baghdad. Thabit and his grandson Ibrahim ibn Sinan studied the curves...

Al Kindi’s Life...

Al- Kindi is a muslim scholar, inventor and innovator, he revolutionized many aspects of the sciences and even music and enabled successors to build on his work. Al –Kindi was born into a life of privilege and luxury; being the son of the governor of Kufa. He belong to a tribe known as the Kindi tribe. He was from what is know today as Iraq. He had his fundamental education in Kufa but moved to Baghdad to continue his studies and further his education. There he broadened his spectrum of knowledge and thereby became supported/patronized by the Abbasyia Caliphs knowns as Al Mamun and Al-Mutasim. He was then assigned to the House of Wisdom which translated Greek scholar texts, scientific and philosophical thus the influence of such work in his own findings and philosophies. Moreover he was chosen to be a calligrapher by Al Muttawakil (caliph) for his artistic and graceful skill when it comes to calligraphy. Thereafter the death of Al Mamun, Kindi’s role in the world of knowledge became of much more importance; he was even hired to be his son’s tutor. However his moment in the spotlight was short lived when al-Wathiq came into power. It is unclear as to what cause Al-Kindi’s collapse, it is argued that is was due to rivalries in the House of Wisdom or Al Muttawakil’s violent persecution towards non-orthodox Muslims. There reached a time when the exceptional scholar was  beaten and his library was confiscated. He died a lonely man in they huge city of Baghdad. After his death, many of his work was lost, this could be due to two reason one of which when the mongols burned down libraries during their invasion and the other that he simply wasn’t popular enough for his...

Ibn-Sina (Writing)

Ibn-Sina, whose Latin name was Avicenna, was a Muslim scientist in the 10th century whom the world was grateful to for his significant discoveries and phenomenal creations in numerous areas, such as Psychology, Medicine and Geology. He was born in 980 and passed away in 1037CE. He wrote a total of 450 books and his most well known writings were Al Qanun Fi-l Tibb and Fi Aqsam Al-Ulum Al-Aqliyyah. He was known to be the Father of Modern Medicine, Father of Geology, and Father of Clinical Pharmacology. Avicenna was born in Central Asia near Bukhara and he had a father who ruled a village in one of the royal districts. He started studying medicine when he was only thirteen-years-old. The Sultan of Bukhara recognized his evident intelligence and intellect; as a result, he was permitted to use the library of the sultan and advance in his research and knowledge with the books, manuscripts, and rare documents the sultan had. In medicine, he wrote the initial description of an inflammation called meningitis, drew the cranial sutures, described and explained pulsation, surgical procedures of intubation, and spreading of diseases by water and soil. All these diagrams and drawings were all advanced by scientist after his era of medical prosperity and lead to further discoveries and creations. Furthermore, he discovered numerous diseases that were sexually transmitted and the causes of bleeding and the escape of blood from vessels in the human body. In the field of astronomy, he concluded that the Earth was closer to planet Venus than it was to the Sun, and he also solved Ptolemaic model’s equant problem. In chemistry, the steam distillation and refrigerated coil were his inventions. The inventions were later evolved and used till our modern time. There were several other...

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham...

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham and sometimes as al-Basri was an Arab scientist, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, astronomy, mathematics, meteorology, visual perception and the scientific method from the ‘Golden Age’ of Muslim civilization. He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus (“Ptolemy the Second”) or “The Physicist” in medieval Europe. Ibn al-Haytham also wrote insightful commentaries on works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Greek mathematician Euclid. He has been described as the father of modern optics, ophthalmology, experimental physics and scientific methodology. Ibn al-Haytham was born in 965 in Basra, to an Arab family. he lived mainly in Cairo, Egypt, and died there at age 74. Ibn al-Haytham was educated in Basra which during the Islamic Golden Age, Basra was a “key beginning of learning” and in Baghdad. Ibn al-Haytham’s most important work is Kitāb al-manāẓir (“Optics”). Although it shows some influence from Ptolemy’s 2nd century AD Optics, it contains the correct model of vision: the passive reception by the eyes of light rays reflected from objects, not an active emanation of light rays from the eyes. It combines experiment with mathematical reasoning, even if it is generally used for validation rather than discovery. The work contains a complete formulation of the laws of reflection and a detailed investigation of refraction, including experiments involving angles of incidence and deviation. In his Ḥall shukūk fī Kitāb Uqlīdis (“Solution of the Difficulties of Euclid’s Elements”) Ibn al-Haytham investigated particular cases of Euclid’s theorems, offered alternative constructions, and replaced some indirect proofs with direct proofs. He made an extended study of parallel lines in Sharḥ muṣādarāt Kitāb Uqlīdis (“Commentary on the Premises of Euclid’s Elements”) and based his treatment of parallels...